en Intermittent Fasting Intermittent fasting is exactly as the name suggests it is fasting for intermittent periods of the day. It is very definitely not starvation. Starvation is going for a significant period of time, usually several days without any food at all. While this will definitely result in weight loss there is a significant risk of an individual doing long term harm.Sat, 07/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty Cardiovascular exercise Cardiovascular exercise is so called because of the effect that it has on your cardiovascular system which is your heart and blood vessels.  It is defined as any physical activity that raises your heart rate.  Normal resting heart rate or HR has a range and this is between 45 and 90 beats per minute.  A value outside of this range, when at rest, is considered abnormal.  If it is below the lower limit of normal this is termed bradycardia and if it is above the upper limit of normal this is termed a tachycardia.Sat, 07/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty Resistance exercise We recommend that you incorporate two sessions per week focusing on strengthening your body’s structures. Resistance training, which is a technical way of saying training with weights or using your own body weight for resistance, when combined with adequate protein consumption and rest, will lead to a strengthening of your muscles, tendons and ligaments.Sat, 07/01/2017 - 02:00Ben Dougherty Mediterranean type cuisine Point three of the Nysteia formula is labelled Mediterranean type cuisine – this is a concept that we have developed within Nysteia and is really quite specific. We have deliberately avoided the use of the term “Mediterranean diet” for a number of reasons. Firstly, the term diet is used loosely and interchangeably to mean a set collection of foods, but in the context of obesity it also implies some form of restriction of food.Sat, 07/01/2017 - 03:00Ben Dougherty About Physical Health When we talk about physical health, we are essentially referring to an optimum state within your body, so that the life that resides within your body may flourish easily, without your body being an impediment to whatever it is that you want to do in life.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty About Societal Health Two thirds of the adult population in developed countries are overweight or obese. By definition, this implies that most people have absolutely no idea how to maintain their body in an optimal state. This cannot be simply the fault of the individual person. There are much larger factors at play, which influence how people maintain their bodies, their health, their diet and their lifestyle.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty About Quality of Life Quality of life is such a personal concept. It is subjective, and quality-of-life changes throughout someone’s life, and it tends to mean different things depending on how old a person is. One person’s highest quality of life may be one that is filled with reading books quietly in a garden, in good health, surrounded by interests and people who are family and dear friends.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty Macronutrients and micronutrients The food that we ingest is divided into macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are defined as a class of chemical compounds that humans consume in the largest quantities. They provide us with the bulk of the energy that we require to perform all our bodily functions. The three main classes of macronutrients are carbohydrate, protein and fat. Water makes up a large proportion of our total diet but it does not provide any nutritional value and as such is not classed as a macronutrient.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty Whole foods If you have ever read an article about healthy eating, invariably the writer will talk about how you should try to eat “whole foods”. Basically, what is meant by this is that there is a nutritional difference between food in its natural state, and highly processed products which can be consumed by people but are drastically lower in nutrient content. Another way to look at whole foods is that they are real food. This means that the food you eat should be as close to its natural state as possible - fish, meat, vegetables, eggs, milk, fruit etc.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 02:00Ben Dougherty Social habits versus evolution realities We are socially products of our time, but biologically we are amalgams of life which are billions of years old. Look back beyond the past 200 years. This modern time has been a mere blip on the time of our species. We have walked the earth as Homo Sapiens for at least 150,000 years, and over that vast expanse of time, there is a natural flow to how we have evolved to be active and inactive. A thought experiment:Tue, 08/01/2017 - 02:00Ben Dougherty Religion and Fasting The fasting concepts of Nysteia are totally compatible with the great religions of the world. Since the concept of fasting pre-dates organised religions, the spiritual aspects of fasting were incorporated into religious practices, as a path to the divine. All the Western religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam – emphasize fasting during certain periods. The religions view fasting as beneficial to the body, mind and the spiritual aspects of life.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 02:00Ben Dougherty Autophagy and prioritised protein catabolism Autophagy is a word, and a concept, that very few people have even heard of (outside of a relatively small cohort of interested people). And yet, it is the one thing that your body does in a fasted state which will add years of life to you.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 02:00Ben Dougherty Processed foods When we talk about processed foods, we’re not talking about a process such as making cheese from milk, or making mince from meat. The types of processed foods that you should avoid are products which have been subjected to chemical processing and artificial refinement. This type of chemical processing very often contains artificial additives and preservatives, colours, chemical flavourings, and even substances which give the product a particular texture and feel inside the mouth.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 03:00Ben Dougherty Failures of calorie restricted diets – regaining weight, depression The ancient Greek myths make for fun reading, especially some of the inventive ways that people were punished when they went to Hades (the Greek hell). One guy was cursed to spend eternity rolling a massive round boulder up a steep hill, only to watch the boulder roll down to the bottom of the hill again – over and over for eternity. If you are overweight, and ever been on a calorie restricted diet, I want you to remember this poor guy, because in a sense he is you except, you never did anything wrong to deserve being punished in hell.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 03:00Ben Dougherty History of fasting – Nysteia is a revival of 3000 years of forgotten truth The history of fasting can't have a beginning point because there's no reason to think that early man did not fast in the normal course of his existence. Every other animal, even today, will fast during times of stress or illness, and sometimes even at the slightest uneasiness. It is a natural tendency for the organism, whether human or animal, to seek rest, balance, and to conserve energy at critical times. Herbert Shelton (1895-1985), the physician who supervised the fasts of over 40,000 people in this century, wroteTue, 08/01/2017 - 03:00Ben Dougherty Autophagy leads to functionally younger body The philosophy of Nysteia advocates only daily intermittent fasting, and eating to satiety with nutritious meals every day. After a few hours of increased autophagy every day – resulting in a small daily catabolism of extraneous unnecessary body matter – the body is then fed with a composition of food which has great taste, and superb nutritional value.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 03:00Ben Dougherty Carbohydrate On the subject of macronutrients, entire textbooks can be written. Many volumes can be written on the subject of carbohydrates alone and how they react in the human body. The average person does not need to know the scientific detail about carbohydrates, but you do need to know enough about them so that you can make informed choices about your food, which will have gigantic positive benefits for your life.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 04:00Ben Dougherty Self image and self esteem Kate Moss (the supermodel) made a comment which I have always found quite funny, but she copped a lot of flak over it. She said “nothing tastes as good as skinny feels”. I don’t agree with the sentiment that you should constantly starve for the higher goal of being thin, and I don’t need to because as we have repeatedly shown you at Nysteia, you can eat to satisfaction every day during your eating window.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 04:00Ben Dougherty Exercise benefits Exercise is good for you. Everybody knows that. We at Nysteia think it is too - but we suggest you should be smart about it, and you should know exactly why you are doing. Broadly, there are two types of exercise - cardio and strength training (using weights or the weight of the body for resistance).Tue, 08/01/2017 - 04:00Ben Dougherty Fat When it comes to food, probably the biggest tragedy of misinformation in the past 40 years has been that eating fat is inherently bad, and that any attempt to lower the amount of fat that you eat (also known as eating low-fat foods) is inherently good. Almost as bad as this incorrect information, is the common idea that you can eat hundreds of grams of carbohydrates every day as a good thing. Both of these ideas are wrong.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 05:00Ben Dougherty Social myths regarding levels of exercise   Living is a lifetime gig. Life is not one day, one month, or one year. The majority of problems (and successes) in your life are a result of years of accumulation - this applies to your health as much as it applies to your finances, your education, your career, your relationships - your entire life is time bound between your birth and your death.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 05:00Ben Dougherty Satiety – The importance of feeling happily fed This is a very important discussion. Eating is crucially important for your mental wellbeing. We are humans, not machines. We have emotions - we laugh, love, get upset – the whole range and gamut of feelings. Food is fundamental to making us feel good… food makes us happy. Food makes us happy. Yes, it is that simple. You remember (like everyone else who reading this) when you ate a particularly fantastic delicious meal - it filled you up, and you were completely satisfied and happy.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 05:00Ben Dougherty Protein Protein is an absolutely vital macronutrient. From protein, we get amino acids which are the very building blocks of life. The very word protein comes from the Greek work “prote(ios)” meaning “primary” or “first”. This should give you an idea of how important protein is to you. The key to protein, to keep the discussion simple, is to eat it in moderation. Among the many benefits of protein are:Tue, 08/01/2017 - 06:00Ben Dougherty General physical activity, active life habituation The world is a big place. Even your suburb is a big place - You should try to see it. Buy a really good pair of walking shoes, and go for a long walk. (I really like Brooks Beast shoes - they are really expensive, but they last for ages and they really protect and support my feet). Go shopping at the mall, instead of shopping over the internet. Yes, I know that the internet is convenient, but that is not my point - you’re not walking anywhere when you’re on the internet.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 06:00Ben Dougherty Mealtime is festive Think of a King and his Feast – it was a fun time for all. Mealtime is a time for happiness, conversation, family togetherness – it is a time to relax, a prelude to winding down after a hard day’s work.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 06:00Ben Dougherty Fibre Fibre is an essential part of our diet. It is important for the purposes of keeping bowel movement regular and there is very good evidence that it has important health benefits such as lowering cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of colon cancer. It is otherwise known as roughage and is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 07:00Ben Dougherty Fasted cardio – the fast track It matters when you exercise, if you want to make the best use for time. For example, if you walk on a treadmill for 30 minutes in the morning after waking up, it will yield more benefits than if you walk on a treadmill for 30 minutes after eating. Fasted cardio, meaning performing cardiovascular exercise in an unfed state, has many advantages compared to cardio exercising after eating.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 07:00Ben Dougherty Benefits of Coffee and Tea – Mood enhancement, appetite suppression, mental clarity Ok, so this is not the definitive exposition of all things regarding coffee and tea. That would be a lifetime work all in itself. For our purposes here, we do want to offer a short discussion about the benefits that we have found combining coffee or tea with intermittent fasting. There are three benefits to drinking caffeinated beverages whilst you are fasting:Tue, 08/01/2017 - 07:00Ben Dougherty Nysteia will save you thousands of dollars every year How? Well, you just will not be spending money needlessly on food all of the time. You can forget about breakfast and morning tea for a start. Your first meal will be at or after 1pm, and for me, that may be as simple as 70 grams of almonds – which costs $2, if you buy in bulk and roast them yourself (which I do).Tue, 08/01/2017 - 08:00Ben Dougherty Incline walking on treadmill We will give you this one suggestion, even though you might not want to hear it - go and hire or buy a treadmill for your home. It will cost you around $1000 to get a decent one, the walking platforms fold up to save space, and they last for years. Nysteia is about developing good habits for your life. This includes spending 30 minutes every morning doing cardio on your treadmill.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 08:00Ben Dougherty Calorie Counting Calorie counting has been an integral part of weight loss programs since they were invented. However, there are a number of problems with the whole concept. Firstly, there is the assumption that they are of great importance. They are important but certainly not critical. As previously discussed in other presentations, in particular the one entitled “What Causes Obesity”, the amount of food that we consume is of relatively low importance in the development of obesity.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 08:00Ben Dougherty Debunking the protein myth Protein is an absolutely essential macronutrient. Unlike carbohydrates, you cannot survive for long periods of time without consuming protein.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 09:00Ben Dougherty Cost savings on food with correct daily protein Of the three macronutrients - being carbohydrates, fat, and protein - it is protein which is by far the most expensive. You may not have thought about this in these terms, but for the sake of explanation:Tue, 08/01/2017 - 09:00Ben Dougherty Hormones The hormones found in the body are a group of compounds that have a common theme and that is they act as a control mechanism for the vast number of processes that occur within the human body every day.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 09:00Ben Dougherty Nysteia will save you time – and give you more life to live Do you have any idea how long you spend planning, preparing, cooking and eating all of the meals in your day, and then cleaning up afterwards? This was an issue that I just took completely for granted, before I developed Nysteia. Intermittent Fasting brings with it a benefit which you will only truly understand once you make it a part of you daily life. There is a great saving of time only thinking about food during your eating window.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 10:00Ben Dougherty The cult of bodybuilding Bodybuilding has got a lot to answer for when it comes to: the perverted health advice it espouses; crazy exercise routines it recommends; ridiculous dietary advice it promotes; and ideals of aesthetic physique it aspires to. We are not blaming any single person, association, company, or competition. Bodybuilding itself is a reflection of a sick society. In the words of Jiddu Krishnamurti “it is no measure of health to be well adjusted to a profoundly sick society”.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 10:00Ben Dougherty Aesthetic physique and Biological Optimum Weight Who are we to say what is beautiful and aesthetically pleasing, especially when it comes to the human body. This subject has been hijacked by lunatics, and now it is difficult to talk about it without offending someone (and that someone is usually fat). We talk straight here at Nysteia. We are all for positive self image, being comfortable in our own skins, loving yourself no matter what your weight… everyone is a good person, everyone is unique and precious, and fat is beautiful.Tue, 08/01/2017 - 11:00Ben Dougherty Obesity and Disease A very comprehensive collection of statistics tells us that the incidence of some very common diseases is even more common in individuals who are either overweight or suffer from obesity.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 01:00Ben Dougherty Heart Disease Heart disease is a collection of separate conditions affecting the heart. So, when we talk about heart disease we are not really specifying the condition or the underlying pathology. It encompasses diseases such as coronary artery disease, which is narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle itself usually secondary to atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries, ischemic heart disease where there is an insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle usually secondary to coronary artery disease.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 02:00Ben Dougherty Type 2 Diabetes As discussed in the presentation ‘Diabetes’, type 2 diabetes refers to the second category of diabetes mellitus as distinct from diabetes insipidus. Further details about the latter condition can be seen in that particular presentation. The common symptoms experienced by the patient with diabetes mellitus, whether that’s type 1 or type 2, is polyuria, that is the passage of large volumes of urine, and as a consequence thirst.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 03:00Anonymous Cerebrovascular disease Cerebrovascular disease incorporates a group of conditions that are categorised by altered brain function as a result of an inadequate blood supply to a specific part of the brain. The usual cause of this inadequate blood supply is either narrowing of the blood vessels themselves, otherwise known as stenosis, or due to a blockage, or alternatively due to a rupture of a blood vessel leading to a pressure effect.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 04:00Ben Dougherty Arthritis Arthritis is inflammation within a joint and there are two main categories, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The distinction is made because the cause of the inflammation is completely different with the two conditions. With rheumatoid arthritis, the inflammation is an autoimmune phenomenon in that the body’s only immune system attacks and destroys the joints in the body. We don’t understand what initiates this process and therefore we can’t cure it. Typically, it affects the small joints of the hands and the feet.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 05:00Ben Dougherty Cancer Cancer is characterised by uncontrolled cell growth. The word tumour comes from the latin word tumor meaning swelling. Tumours are either benign or malignant, and a malignant tumour is synonymous with cancer. Cancers are characterised by their ability for the cells to lose their attachment to the primary tumour and to spread to other parts of the body and this process is known as metastasising.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 06:00Ben Dougherty Hypertension Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Under normal circumstances the heart pumps blood around the body and in the process, develops a pressure gradient when the ventricle is contracting – this is in the region of 120 mmHg and is known as the systolic pressure. Between contractions the pressure does not reduce to zero as there is elasticity within the walls of the blood vessels which initially expand and then contract to maintain the pressure gradient. This is known as the diastolic pressure and is in the region of 80 mmHg.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 07:00Ben Dougherty Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease – GORD GORD is an abbreviation for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. In North America, it is known as GERD because they spell oesophagus ‘incorrectly’ without the O. But we won’t dwell on that! It is a very common condition affecting a significant number of people but it is undoubtedly exacerbated by being overweight and by obesity.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 08:00Ben Dougherty Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Obstructive sleep apnoea otherwise known as OSA is a disorder in which your breathing is repetitively interrupted during sleep. Apnoea means an absence of breathing. It is due to a collapse of the upper airway and the incidence is dramatically increased in patients who are overweight or suffering from obesity.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 09:00Ben Dougherty Incontinence When we talk about incontinence we are talking about both faecal and urinary incontinence. They can occur in men and woman but it tends to be a lot more common in women, particular urinary incontinence – largely as a manifestation of injury to the pelvic floor which inevitably happens with delivering a baby vaginally.Fri, 09/01/2017 - 10:00Ben Dougherty What is obesity? Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. Numerous studies have demonstrated a linear relationship between the level of obesity and both morbidity and mortality and obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. So, we now talk of someone suffering from obesity, the definition of which is objective, rather than being obese which is both descriptive and subjective.Wed, 09/27/2017 - 12:12Anonymous What Causes Obesity? The cause of obesity is multifactorial – this means there are numerous factors acting together. It is first and foremost a metabolic disease in that too much glucose is converted into adipose tissue. There is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition to obesity as demonstrated by studies on identical twins and also in children adopted by adults other than their natural parents. But to blame your obesity on your parents is to dramatically side-step the truth which we will come on to shortly.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:17Ben Dougherty Who gets obesity The simple answer to the question who gets obesity is: anyone. As discussed in the presentation entitled ‘What Causes Obesity’, clearly there are numerous factors acting in unison and there are certain factors, in particular genetic factors that make a particular individual more predisposed to developing the disease. However, if the important themes are acting then the development of obesity is inevitable.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:18Ben Dougherty Daily Calorie Requirements As discussed in the presentation entitled ‘Measurement of food’, the amount of energy made available to the body can be classified in either calories or kilojoules. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), otherwise known as ‘Calories Out’, largely determines daily energy requirement from food i.e. ‘Calories In’. Ideally the two should match. However, as discussed later, the two are far from independent, and therefore Calories In can also determine TDEEThu, 09/28/2017 - 11:19Ben Dougherty Measurement of food energy Food energy, which is effectively the amount of energy released by a particular quantity of one of the three macronutrients, namely carbohydrate, fat and protein, can be measured using either joules or calories. A joule is the SI unit of work or energy, equal to the work done by a force of 1 Newton when its point of application moves one meter in the direction of the force. By contrast a calorie is specifically a unit of heat energy and is the energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water through one degree centigrade.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:20Ben Dougherty Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is exactly what the name suggests – the cells of the body become resistant and do not respond to insulin as they would do when the body is in a state of optimal function.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:22Ben Dougherty Calorie Restricted Diets The calorie restricted diet is the traditional diet that most people adopt when they want to lose weight. In essence, they believe that if you restrict the intake of food, and thereby indirectly restrict calories, then the inevitable will happen namely you will lose weight. Regrettably this belief is wrong - the concept that obesity is simply caused by too many calories is an absurd oversimplification. It is far more complex than this.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:23Ben Dougherty Measurement of obesity There are a number of ways of measuring obesity. Probably the most accurate way is percentage body fat (BFP). This is defined as the total mass of fat divided by the total body mass. Body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat. Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions and is approximately 2 - 5 % in men and 10 - 13 % in woman. The percentage of essential body fat for woman is greater due to the demands of child bearing and other hormonal functions.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:24Ben Dougherty Diabetes The name diabetes comes from a Greek word meaning siphon and is so called because all types of diabetes have one thing in common and that is polyuria or passing abnormally large volumes of urine. There are two main classes of diabetes. Firstly, diabetes insipidus and then the other main type is diabetes mellitus.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:25Ben Dougherty Carbohydrate digestion and metabolism Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (the other two being fat and protein) that are found in the foods that we eat. Carbohydrates are divided into two types: complex and simple. Simple carbohydrates consist of single or double sugar units - monosaccharides and disaccharides respectively. Table sugar, otherwise known as sucrose, is a disaccharide made up of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose. Complex carbohydrates contain three or more sugar units linked in a chain. Starch for example is a polymer of glucose units.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:55Ben Dougherty Fat digestion and metabolism Fat is one of the three macronutrients (the others being carbohydrate and protein) that make up the majority of the food that we eat. It is an essential macronutrient in that the body requires certain elements that are derived from dietary fats for normal body processes. Secondly four essential vitamins namely A, D, E and K, are fat soluble and the absorption of these vitamins is dependent upon the presence of fat in the gut.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:56Ben Dougherty Protein digestion and metabolism Protein digestion starts in the stomach through an enzyme called pepsin and then continues in the duodenum and the next bit of gut called the jejunum, through enzymes secreted by the pancreas namely trypsin and chymotrypsin. The proteins are broken down initially into polypeptides and then into their basic units namely amino acids. Amino acids are absorbed through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. In the bloodstream, the amino acids are transported into the liver and other cells where they are utilised for important cellular functions.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:57Ben Dougherty Energy source alternatives The human body is the most sophisticated being on the planet and has many wonderful mechanisms that, as previously discussed in other presentations, have evolved over millions of years. One of these mechanisms is its ability utilise different food substrates for the purposes of cellular energy production. In this respect the billions of cells within our body, irrespective of their function, have a common pathway namely the Krebs cycle. For further details about the chemical processes that make up the Krebs cycle please see the presentation with this title.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:57Ben Dougherty Ketone Bodies Ketone bodies are three separate water soluble compounds that are produced by the liver from fatty acids by a process called ketosis. These compounds are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and their spontaneous break-down product acetone.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:58Ben Dougherty Ketosis Ketosis is the term given to the body’s mechanism of producing ketone bodies. As discussed in the presentation ‘Ketone Bodies’, these are three compounds derived from fatty acids namely acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and their spontaneous breakdown product acetone. Unfortunately, there is considerable confusion amongst people who should know better, namely doctors, dieticians and people in the business of nutrition, with regards to the definition of ketosis and the mechanisms evolvedThu, 09/28/2017 - 11:59Ben Dougherty Insulin Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, made and secreted by the pancreas. The pancreas is an integral part of the digestive system and has many important functions all relating to the digestion of food. The main function of insulin relates to glucose metabolism. Glucose is the end product of carbohydrate digestion in the gut. When Glucose is absorbed through the gut wall into the bloodstream, its baseline level becomes elevated. The response of the pancreas to this elevated glucose is to produce and secrete more insulin.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 11:59Ben Dougherty Evolution The theory of evolution as proposed by Darwin holds that humans have evolved over millions of years from more primitive life forms. The evidence in support of this is overwhelming compared to the very tenuous evidence to support creationism which holds that the earth and every single living thing on it was created about ten thousand years ago from nothing. The earliest life forms can be traced back 350 billion years.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:00Ben Dougherty Anatomy of the digestive tract Solid food when taken into the mouth is initially broken down mechanically by the teeth, a process known as mastication. Our dentition has evolved over millions of years to allow us to eat a combination of different foods, both plant and animal based. The food is mixed with saliva which is designed to lubricate and aid swallowing otherwise known as deglutition. Saliva in addition to lubricating contains an enzyme called amylase which can break down starch into its constituent sugar namely glucose. This explains why if you chew bread for long enough it will start to taste sweet.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:02Ben Dougherty Homeostasis Homeostasis is the term given to the large number of mechanisms that exists within an organism, in this case the human body, to ensure that it survives. Homeostatic mechanisms operate in an adverse environment with the aim of bringing a particular function back to normality and as a result ensuring that the organism as a whole is performing optimally and therefore has its best chances of survival.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:02Ben Dougherty Glycogen Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in the liver, so when excess carbohydrate is ingested and converted to glucose, beyond that which is required for immediate utilisation as energy, instead of being wasted it is converted into a polymer of glucose and this is called glycogen. This process actually occurs within the liver itself and is called glycogenesis. Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:03Ben Dougherty Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis is the process by which the body generates glucose from certain non-carbohydrate substrates including glycogenic (glucose producing) amino acids from the breakdown of proteins and from glycerol which is one of the breakdown products of triglycerides. Fatty acids themselves do not enter the gluconeogenic pathway but instead enter the Krebs cycle as an energy substrate in their own right. Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:04Ben Dougherty Body Storage of Food One of the body’s vital homeostatic mechanisms i.e. the mechanisms that have evolved over millions of years to ensure that we function optimally and have our best chance of survival in the face of adversity, is to have the ability to store any excess food that we take in but cannot be utilised immediately.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:05Ben Dougherty Krebs cycle The Krebs cycle was identified in 1937 by Hans Krebs and is the key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. An appreciation of this process is essential to understanding how the cells of the human body actually utilise the substances that are produced from our food as a result of digestion, and also how we have evolved over millions of years to utilise alternative energy sources besides glucose. And a grasp of this latter concept is absolutely vital in understanding the most efficient way to tackle obesity.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:05Ben Dougherty Fasting versus Eating windows As discussed in the presentation entitled ‘Intermittent Fasting’, the concept is very definitely not synonymous with starvation. With intermittent fasting, you are permitted to eat your daily energy requirement, which for most men is 2500 Calories and for most women is 2000 Calories, within a specified period.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:42Ben Dougherty Biological Optimum Weight (BOW) Biological Optimum Weight (BOW) is a concept that has been developed by Nysteia. It is the weight that your body will automatically adopt when you follow the Nysteia Formula. As discussed in other presentations, the thousands of normal physiological processes that take place within the human body have evolved over millions of years and exist to ensure homeostasis. The latter is an umbrella term for the body’s ability to bring itself back to normal function such that it is performing optimally and has its best chance of survival.Thu, 09/28/2017 - 12:43Ben Dougherty Aesthetic physique and Biological Optimum Weight Curabitur non nulla sit amet nisl tempus convallis quis ac lectus. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Pellentesque in ipsum id orci porta dapibus. Vestibulum ac diam sit amet quam vehicula elementum sed sit amet dui. Cras ultricies ligula sed magna dictum porta. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Donec velit neque, auctor sit amet aliquam vel, ullamcorper sit amet ligula.Fri, 09/29/2017 - 08:07Ben Dougherty Genetics Our genes are a series of molecules that dictate amongst other things how our bodies are assembled and how we function. Within the nucleus of each and every cell in our bodies, are 46 chromosomes that exist as pairs, 23 of which have come from our mother and 23 have come from our father. They are assembled from 4 bases that are in a specific order and this order equates to the various genes. In all there are 3 billion base pairs that make up the genes within our chromosomes in each cell.Mon, 12/18/2017 - 19:55Anonymous What is the Nysteia Formula? The Nysteia Formula is simply the practical application of Nysteia’s theory, it has three components which if followed closely and with routine will ensure a happy healthy long life – intermittent fasting, cardiovascular exercise and Mediterranean type cuisine.Thu, 12/21/2017 - 12:44Anonymous