As discussed in the presentation ‘Diabetes’, type 2 diabetes refers to the second category of diabetes mellitus as distinct from diabetes insipidus. Further details about the latter condition can be seen in that particular presentation. The common symptoms experienced by the patient with diabetes mellitus, whether that’s type 1 or type 2, is polyuria, that is the passage of large volumes of urine, and as a consequence thirst. This is because the glucose in the blood stream which ordinarily is controlled within very strict parameters, becomes uncontrolled allowing the blood glucose to rise and then to appear in the urine. This has an osmotic effect on the water in the body, resulting in the loss of large volumes.

In type 1 diabetes there is a lack of insulin produced by the pancreas due to the body destroying its own pancreatic cells. In type 2 diabetes paradoxically there is an excessive production of insulin which leads to insulin resistance, or conversely a loss of insulin sensitivity. And this latter state of affairs arises almost always because the pancreas is prompted to secrete insulin every time that food, in particular carbohydrate, is taken into the body.

It is not so much the quantity of food that produces this effect but more so the type of food, in particular carbohydrate and in particular the frequency of that intake of carbohydrate.

Under ordinary circumstances when food is digested and absorbed into the blood stream the insulin will rise in response and that has the effect of pushing the glucose into the cells for immediate utilisation. And if it cannot be utilised immediately then it is converted into stored adipose tissue. Glucose levels will fall fairly promptly back to baseline levels and insulin levels will also decrease to zero over a longer period.

If however another meal is taken in, particular one that is high in carbohydrate content, then the process is repeated and if this happens on a sufficiently regular basis then effectively the insulin level never returns to zero.

The inevitable effect on the cells of the body is a detrimental one in that they become more and more resistant to insulin and it therefore takes more insulin, produced by the pancreas, to counteract this constant bombardment of glucose. The body is trying its best to keep the blood glucose levels within the safe range. At some point the cells of the body will simply say “no more” at which point there is then a relative lack of insulin allowing the glucose to rise above its upper limit and appear in the urine.

Glucose in the urine is not necessarily a problem although of course it means that it is being wasted which in itself is not an issue in an individual who is constantly supplying the body with food. The main problem with diabetes is the chronically elevated blood glucose which has a significant detrimental effect on a number of organs in the body in particular the kidneys themselves, resulting in chronic renal failure, and the retina resulting in dramatic deterioration in vision and eventually blindness.

It also has an effect on the small blood vessels leading to a shut down and as a consequence ischemia otherwise known as gangrene. It also effects the nerves of the body effectively stopping them working and this is known as a diabetic neuropathy.

90% of type 2 diabetics are either overweight or suffering from obesity and it is all down to the development of insulin resistance as previously described. Unfortunately for most patient’s medical treatment is directed reactively and not proactively. This means that most doctors will treat the lack of insulin with medication when in fact they should be managing the root cause.

The traditional medication for diabetes is to force the pancreas to either produce more insulin or to increase insulin sensitivity. At some point, of course this will fail to have an adequate effect at which point the administration of insulin itself, by injection, will be necessary. This is the worst possible scenario as of course, as previously discussed, more insulin will further increase insulin resistance.

The most definitive, efficient and logical way to treat type 2 diabetes is to assist the body in regaining its own insulin sensitivity and the only way to do that is to reduce the output of insulin from the pancreas. And the only way to do that is to stop giving it carbohydrate.

This is the rationale behind point 1 and point 3 of the Nysteia Formula namely intermittent fasting and Mediterranean type cuisine with a significant emphasis on reducing the intake of refined carbohydrate. There is an increasing amount of evidence that this is an extremely effective way of managing type 2 diabetes and in most cases the condition can be completely reversed.